February 2021

Targeting Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) to Favorable Contexts: Factors Contributing to the Success of CLTS in Zambia


This brief summarizes the USAID Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Partnerships and Learning for Sustainability (WASHPaLS) activity that examined CLTS datasets in Zambia to quantify the extent to which environmental, demographic, accessibility, and socioeconomic factors affect ODF achievement and sustainability.

WASHPaLS examined CLTS performance data from the national WASH Management Information System (WASH MIS), which tracks the progress of Zambia’s Sanitation and Hygiene Program (ZSHP). The cleaned WASH MIS dataset (9,017 villages) covered the period 2013-2018 and included villages from 434 wards (the smallest division of local government) out of 1,287 nationally.

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