July 2019

Sanitation Policies, Practices and Preferences in Kumasi, Ghana.


  • In Kumasi, the majority of low-income households use public toilets, but would prefer private facilities.
  • Low-income residents prefer low-volume flush toilets that require little space and infrequent emptying.
  • Pit-emptying in Kumasi’s low-income areas is mostly done by vacuum trucks.
  • A fecal sludge treatment facility does exist in Kumasi, though it is not fully operational.

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