July 2019

Sanitation Policies, Practices and Preferences in Kisumu, Kenya


  • The majority of low-income residents use basic unlined pit latrines but prefer water-based sanitation options, such as pour- or cistern flush toilets to lined pits, septic tanks, or sewer.
  • Kisumu’s high water table complicates toilet construction and accelerates pit fill-up rates.
  • Kisumu has the capacity to safely treat fecal sludge, with two treatment sites in operation.
  • Multiple ongoing sanitation programs focus on safe emptying and disposal in low-income areas.

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