August 2020

Expanding Safe Fecal Sludge Management in Kisumu, Kenya – An Analysis of the Gap Between Supply and Demand


  • Pit latrines are often the most common form of sanitation in urban, low-income areas.
  • When pits fill up, informal and unregulated manual emptiers typically remove and dump the fecal waste in the surrounding environment.
  • We conducted household surveys and a real-money voucher trial to determine willingness-to-pay for safe pit emptying services in Kisumu, Kenya.
  • We found that less than 20% of households were willing to pay market prices for safe emptying services.
  • This gap between supply and demand indicates that expanding safe emptying services to low-income areas will require substantial subsidies.

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