August 2020

Expanding Safe Fecal Sludge Management in Kisumu, Kenya – A Comparison Study of Latrine Pit-Emptying Services


  • Promoting safe pit-emptying services in urban, low-income areas is
  • required to achieve universal access to safely-managed sanitation.
  • We compared the performance of three different groups in coordinating
  • safe emptying services in the city of Kisumu, Kenya: the Association of Wastewater Managers, a formal manual emptying organization, and a community-based water supplier.
  • The Association of Wastewater Managers performed the best at coordinating emptying services, as indicated by the number emptying jobs, financial viability, and customer satisfaction.
  • Productive collaborations between VTOs and formal manual emptying organizations are a useful model for improving pro-poor service delivery.
  • However, safe emptying services are often unaffordable, and will likely require subsidies and political action to service low-income areas.

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